What Are The Differences Between The Four Power Treaty And The Stimson Agreement

Posted by on April 15, 2021

These agreements included a four-power pact between Japan, Britain, the United States and France, which replaced the Anglo-Japanese alliance, and a five-power naval restriction agreement (with Italy) that set limits for battleships in a ratio of five for Britain and the United States to three for Japan…. The five-power naval restriction treaty, signed on 6 February 1922 by the United States, Great Britain, Japan, France and Italy, was born out of the opening proposal presented at the conference of US Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes to dismantle nearly 1.9 million tons of warships of the major powers. This bold disarmament proposal surprised the assembled delegates, but it was implemented in a modified way. A detailed agreement was reached to determine the respective numbers and tonnages of the capital vessels that were to be owned by the navies of each contracting state. (Capital ships, defined as warships with more than 10,000 tons of eviction or rifles greater than 8 inches, essentially called warships and aircraft carriers.) The respective conditions of the vessels to be held by each signatory were set at 5 for the United States and Great Britain, 3 for Japan and 1.67 for France and Italy. The five-navy limitation treaty stopped racing after the First World War during the construction of warships and even reversed the trend; it required the scrapping of 26 American warships, 24 British and 16 Japanese warships, either already built or under construction. States Parties have also agreed to abandon their existing capital assets for a period of ten years, with certain exceptions. Under another section of the treaty, the United States, Britain and Japan agreed to maintain the status quo with respect to their fortifications and naval bases in the eastern Pacific. The same five powers have signed another treaty that regulates the use of submarines and prohibits the use of toxic gases (see chemical weapons) in war. A nine-power pact, signed by the five powers, as well as the Netherlands, Portugal, Belgium and China, confirmed China`s sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity and gave all nations the right to do business on an equal footing with China. In a related treaty, the nine powers set up an international commission to investigate China`s customs policy. The latest multilateral agreement reached at the Washington Naval Conference, the Nine Power Treaty, marked the internationalization of U.S. open-door policy in China.

The treaty promised that each of the signatories – the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Portugal and China – would respect China`s territorial integrity. The treaty recognized Japanese supremacy in Manchuria, but also reaffirmed the importance of equal opportunities for all nations doing business in the country. For its part, China has agreed not to discriminate against a country that wants to do business there. Like the Treaty of the Four Powers, the Treaty on China called for continued consultations between signatories in the event of infringement. As a result, it did not have a method of application to ensure that all powers complied with its conditions. The five-power treaty, signed by the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France and Italy, was the cornerstone of the navy`s disarmament program.

Last modified on April 15, 2021

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